Duane K. McCullough 3/14

While reviewing a graphical chart I created decades ago that illustrates these important unit measurement concepts used during the age of Atlantis, I decided to take a trek around the globe and visit several significant prehistoric monument sites to see if these unit measurement concepts can be found within the their foundation layout designs when they were built. If they can be found -- then perhaps numerical measurement evidence exist across the globe that could help prove the idea that the Imperial Measurement System was created by the lost maritime civilization of Atlantis.

Luckly, by using the Google Earth program that comes with a measurement tool option, I could accomplish this trek in a matter of hours instead of days or weeks if I had traveled in person.

In fact, we all can follow along on this trek across the globe using the Google Earth program if you have access to the Internet and a good computer.

The chart in question is called HISTORICAL VALUES AND THE GOLDEN SECTION from Volume 3, Chapter 7 -- where I gave, for example, the base measurement of the Egyptian CHEOPS pyramid as 760-feet or one-eigth of a Nautical Mile.

This chart also illustrates a mathematical formula regarding how the Imperial 12-inch foot unit measurement was once based on the cubic pound weight of water and the numerical value number of the GOLDEN SECTION RATIO concept.

Again, if the use of the Imperial 12-inch foot unit can be found within important prehistoric monument measurements around the globe, then perhaps modern scientist would have a better understanding of how our Atlantean ancestors once used the Imperial Measurement System to help build the foundations to a remarkable technology lost long ago.

However, before we visit the CHEOPS Pyramid complex in Egypt and take measurements of their foundations using the Google Earth program, let's first visit a prehistoric place where an important long distance measurement unit was once used by our Atlantean ancestors.

When Plato documented the general layout of the capital seaport of Atlantis, he used a unit measurement called a Stadia -- which is recorded in many history books as having a length value of about 607 feet.

For reasons soon to be explain, we will discover the true length of the Stadia measurement is not the 607-foot value -- but instead, should be understood as equaling about 304-feet -- or 1/20th of a Nautical Mile value.

So -- using the Google Earth program, if we zoom down to a prehistoric place in the country of Greece called Olympia located on the upper western Peloponnesian Peninsula that many believe was the site of the first Olympic contest between racing humans, we will find a track field just east and near the Temple of Zeus.

Now, by studying this track field in detail we will notice that there exist faint markers on the field. If the current aerial photo image of Google Earth seems very white or "bleached out", just use the Historical View tool to go back in time to a date that perhaps shows a better aerial photo of the site so the image contrast reveals more data.

By also using the measurement tool that comes with Google Earth we can see about half the track field from left to right equals almost 100-yards or 300-feet where we should notice a small dirt mark on the south edge of the field that could represent the halfway mark.

It is important to understand and remember that this particular field in Greece represents the first Olympic contest site where the first "100-yard Dash Foot Race" took place. It is also believe by many that the Stadia Measurement is based on this ancient foot race site.

Let's say that the original Olympiad foot race was the 100-yard measurement -- which equals about half of this track field, then perhaps the length measurement of a "Yard" unit was once known and used to measure several other sites in ancient times.

Moreover, because the 100-yard measurement is just 4 feet short of a much larger unit of measurement used in ancient times such as the 1/20th of a Nautical Mile measurement of 304-feet -- perhaps the distance of 304-feet equals the true length of the Stadia measurement instead of the 607-foot value given in many textbooks.

If you think about it, a 100-yard foot race track field located within any kind of stadium site would need at least a few extra feet to include room for the start and finish line areas.

**Reporter 2:** So, where do you believe the "Yard" unit measurement came from -- and how does this 100-yard unit measurement relate to the Imperial Measurement System once used by the Atlantean Civilization?

**Duane:** Good questions -- but before I respond to those questions, let's review quickly the measurement concepts just described.

First, the original Stadia Measurement equals almost 100-yards or 304-feet. There is probably some small variation in the exact measurement because of human error -- but for the most part, the Imperial yard/foot/inch units can be found in the original Stadia Measurement.

Second, it should be known that most all sport stadiums across the globe use a playing field that equals about 100-yards. There are reasons that not all stadiums are based on the exact 100-yard measurement -- and those reasons will be explained later in this interview.

Now, let's close the Historical Imagery option in Google Earth and zoom up from the ancient Olympiad site and over to the CHEOPS Pyramid complex site near Cairo Egypt so we can study the foundation layout measurements of the ancient pyramids.

By the way -- every time we leave these prehistoric monument sites we should close the Historical Imagery tool option in Google Earth to reset the program to the latest dated image. This action keeps the program from trying to load images at high altitudes when we are moving to visit the next site.

The first thing that we will notice is that all the pyramids seem to be missing an outer layer of protective stone -- with the exception of the middle pyramid that has some stone cap-like layer near the top.

It's almost as if these pyramid monuments survived basically intact after some major global storm and earthquake event -- perhaps the Biblical Flood event damaged them and the outside stone layer blocks have fallen down and were reused on other building projects throughout ancient Egypt.

In any case, the true foundations of the pyramids are not easily measurable today because, without the fine stone outer layer surface that would project from the top to the ground, exact foundation markers do not exist.

I should point out at this time regarding a recient theory as to the reason why these pyramids where built in the first place. This theory -- which has several versions, suggest they were huge "ram water pumps" based on the layout data of the interior plumbing system that supplied falling water pressure to nearby communities. Details as to how this unique ram water pump design theory can be found online by searching on the Internet the term "pyramid ram pump".

So, by using Google Earth's measurement tool we can try to find some approximate numerical unit value as to how long the pyramid foundation sides are. Or we can just read on the Internet from certain websites -- like Wikipedia, and see what other engineers have recorded regarding the foundation dimensions of the pyramids.

However we discover the numerical measurement values of the pyramids, the two larger pyramids -- in particular the upper right pyramid as seen with north facing up, measures about 756 feet at its foundation base. This pyramid is known as "The Great Pyramid of CHEOPS", and has a small triangular metal tower on the top.

If 4 more feet were added to the 756-foot measurement the answer would equal 760-feet -- or exactly 1/8 of a nautical mile. Remember, significant erosion cause by the "Biblical Flood' event could have reduced the original parameter measurements of the pyramids whereby the current measurements are slightly smaller than when they were built.

The foundation base of the KHAFRE Pyramid in the middle of the three is believed to measure at only 706-feet according to one source, but the same source also records the height is just 9 feet short of the CHEOPS pyramid -- so, some small numerical error probably exist in the offical measurements of all the pyramids due to human error not including the destruction factors associated with the "Biblical Flood" event.

I should also add the view based from some historical websites which suggest there were once water filled areas with low walls -- much like a "moat" around a castle, that existed around these pyramids at their foundations and could make their base measurements slightly larger than many textbooks give.

Regarding the height to base ratio measurement of all three pyramids, it seems the 5/8 GOLDEN SECTION RATIO value was used because, well -- the math says so.

For example, the offical height measurement of "The Great Pyramid of CHEOPS" is 480-feet -- so, 5/8 of the 760-foot base value equals 475-feet. The 5 foot difference between 475-feet and 480-feet could be the result of human error in measuring the monument. These pyramids are very big and a 5 foot measurement error would be an easy error to make.

Even the height to base ratio measurement of the smaller pyramid known as the MENKAURE Pyramid reflects the 5/8 GOLDEN SECTION RATIO value -- in that the offical measurement of the height is 215-feet with a base foundation of 339-feet.

By the way, the value of the 5/8 GOLDEN SECTION equals the "rounded value of 62.5%" -- in that the whole number of 5 is 62.5% of the whole number of 8. A more precise number that represents the GOLDEN SECTION RATIO concept is the 61.8% value -- which I use in my chart measurement data resulting in slightly different values.

I could continue explaining the value of the GOLDEN SECTION RATIO concept and how this remarkable proportion measurement represents infinite values that is found throughout nature -- but that's another story.

**Reporter 2:** So, again -- where do you believe the "Yard" unit measurement came from?

**Duane:** Okay -- well, let's first explore the origin of the Imperial 12-inch foot unit measurement before we study the origin of the 3 foot "Yard" unit measurement.

Let's start by understanding the need by early humans to find a unique method of balancing the measurement of weight with distance so that a common standard unit measurement system could be replicated at different sites where trade is important.

This unique method of balancing the measurement of weight with distance includes the art of understanding that a special reference number value is needed to properly formulate how the Imperial 12-inch foot unit was invented.

Beginning with a common available material with a uniform density weight that can be measured as a cube in length, height and width units -- such as liquid water, and by balancing or matching the density weight of a natural nutritional food unit like some grain seed or bean with the density weight of water units, we can start to understand how our Atlantean ancestors invented the Imperial Measurement System of units.

For the record, there exist a Wikipedia article regarding the origin of the "Yard" unit that states the following quote from an old British book dated to over seven centuries ago.

"It is ordained that 3 grains of barley dry and round do make an inch, 12 inches make 1 foot, 3 feet make 1 yard, 5 yards and a half make a perch, and 40 perches in length and 4 in breadth make an acre."

So, according to the Wikipedia article, "3 grains of barley dry and round do make an inch" -- but I've have since discovered that carob and cacao beans were once used as a valuable nutritional source unit of trade in the warmer tropical latitudes. By the way, Carob and Cacao beans have a much more nutritional value than barley grains.

This discovery implies the idea that instead of measuring the size distance of a grain or bean to achieve a measurement formula, another method of formulating a distance measurement can be accomplished by matching the density weight of a valuable commodity like a food unit with that of the density weight of water.

For example, if we were to measure the cubic density weight of water to a particular length size -- say a 12 inch by 12 inch by 12 inch cube of water, we would discover the weight would equal about 62.5 pounds.

Add to this example measurement formula the idea that because many believe the origin of the pound weight is based on the weight of a food unit called a "grain", and one could see that 62.5 pounds of water -- the same numerical value identified with the GOLDEN SECTION RATIO concept, is part of the formula that defines the origin of the Imperial 12-inch foot unit measurement.

UPDATE: 12/2015

A recent online documentary entitled "Secrets in Plain Sight" by Scott Onstott suggested a mathematical formula known long ago wherein the circumference of the Earth that measures 24,901 statue miles was once used as the foundation unit to the origin of the 12-inch foot measurement. This mathematical measurement formula assumes a unique relationship between the annual value of a true tropical solar year at the 365.242 day count measurement when multiplied by 360,000 equals the foot unit value of 131,487,120 -- which translates into the 24,901 statue mile circumference of the Earth. This mathematical formula concept also implies that some ancient civilization once knew the measurement of the Earth in Imperial feet long ago.

In other words, if one multiplies the True Tropical Solar Year day count number of 365.242 by the decimal circle number value of 360,000, the answer gives a value which when divided by the Imperial Statue Mile of 5,280 feet equals almost exactly the circumference of earth as measured in Imperial Statue Miles -- therefore, the measurement of the Imperial 12 inch foot is based on the known circumference of earth! How did our ancient ancestors -- who "invented" the Imperial 12 inch foot measurement, know the circumference of the earth?

**Reporter 2:** I see -- so the 'Yard" unit measurement is based on the 12-inch foot unit measurement, which is also based on the cubic weight of water measured in Pounds and the numerical value associated with the GOLDEN SECTION RATIO formula. So, where did the "Pound" weight come from? And how does this information help us better understand the foundation measurements of these prehistoric pyramid monuments?

**Duane:** Well, the story of how and when the "Pound" weight measurement came into being is a complex tale -- and I don't want to spend time trying to explain it right now.

Let's just say for now that the story deals with measuring the weight and volume of food units -- and giving value to these units for trade reasons.

I would rather return to our global trek using Google Earth and show examples of how the Imperial Measurement System can be found in prehistoric monuments.

So, before we leave the eastern Mediterranean area, let's jump up and over to Athens in Greece and check out the base measurement of the Parthenon temple. This time we should check with the Wikipedia link and read the full article to see the measurement data instead of using the measuring tool of the Google Earth program because the site surface is too rough to get a good measurement.

By the way, there is a check option in the sidebar menu of the Google Earth program that allows Wikipedia site locations to appear on our map which should help us find more data about these prehistoric monuments.

Wikipedia says that the base parameter equals about 228-feet by 101-feet. We should remember that, like the large scale pyramid measurements in Egypt, a measurement error as small as one foot is a possibility -- so, it seems that the base sides of the Parthenon measures almost exactly 100-feet by 76-yards.

Speaking of the 100-foot measurement unit count -- let's back out and zoom up over to the Stonehenge monument site in England located about halfway between Bristol and Portsmouth. Zooming close in and then using the measuring tool again we will discover that the outermost stones are arranged in a round circle that measures 100-feet in diameter. Was the Imperial Measurement System also used to construct this prehistoric site like the Parthenon and Egyptian Pyramid sites?

Now, let's back out again and spin the earth globe around to the right so we can zoom westward down to a prehistoric site about 22 Nautical Miles northeast of Mexico City known as the Teotihuacan complex where the Pyramid of the Sun temple can be found.

Sometimes if you get disoriented using Google Earth and loose the direction of North -- just click on the little "N" icon in the upper right corner of your window -- just above the directional control icon, and the program will automatically align the scene to true north.

This prehistoric pyramid is not as tall as the Egyptian pyramids we just visited, but if we measure the eastern side of the base, we will discover that it is about 760-feet long -- just like the other prehistoric pyramids on the other side of the globe!

However, before we get too excited about this apparent coincidence -- let's check out the Wikipedia link and see if this measurement is correct.

Well, the full article says the sides measure only about 733-feet -- some 27-feet short of 760-feet.

But could the original parameter side measurements of this pyramid monument have been reduced in size somewhat because of the same Biblical Flood event that altered the Egyptian pyramids?

Moreover, what is visible at the monument complex today is the result of many years of rebuilding and renovating the site. Nobody really knows the original foundation measurements of the site.

So, what are the odds that a native culture in the New World used a measurement system to help build one of the largest prehistoric monument sites in the world with the same base size as the largest pyramid sites in the Old World?

Was there once a common measurement system ever used in prehistoric times? If so, then what prehistoric global civilization would qualify for such a capacity to accomplish this feat?

The subject of Atlantis needs to rise above the many layers of misinformation that has been piled on top of it over the centuries.

Perhaps you are still skeptical that the use of the Imperial Measurement System was ever used in these prehistoric monuments -- okay, maybe you need some more numerical evidence to change your mind.

In any event, let's check out some other nearby prehistoric monumental sites and measure them to see if the use of the Imperial 12-inch foot unit can be found.

Remember -- we are not just looking to find building measurements that match any 12-inch foot unit number, we are looking for significant number units that match the 100 number value -- or numbers that are divisible units of the 6080-foot Nautical Mile measurement.

**Reporter 2:** Why? How does the 12-inch foot number unit or 6080-foot Nautical Mile measurement unit relate to the Imperial Measurement System anyway?

**Duane:** Because the civilization of Atlantis was a maritime kingdom that used measurements related to the 6-foot Fathom unit -- and the 100-Fathom unit known as the "Cable Length". The half Fathom value of the 3 foot Yard unit has been used by seafaring peoples for many centuries.

Even important non-seafaring measurements -- such as the 220-yard Furlong unit related to land Acre units, are part of the Imperial Measurement System.

By the way, the Imperial Measurement System should not be confused with the political concept of Imperialism -- that subject is an entirely different story not related to this story about ancient measurements and prehistoric monuments.

Anyway -- let's return to the Google Earth program and find some more proof that the Imperial Measurement System was used by our ancient Atlantean ancestors.

From the Pyramid of the Sun monument site at the Teotihuacan complex near Mexico City, let's travel up and eastward to the Mayan site of Chichen-Itza in the upper Yucatan Peninsula area.

Zooming down to the site about 20 Nautical Miles west of the town of Valladolid, we will find a major prehistoric monument complex that has some temple buildings and a ball court for sporting events.

We should notice that the main feature at the site is the El Castillow pyramid -- and by using the historical view tool option again in the Google Earth menu to return to the year 2002, a better image can be seen in which to measure the sides of the pyramid.

Okay -- using the measurement tool we can see the base of the El Castillow pyramid is about 180-feet -- or 60-yards. We should be able to verify this measurement by opening the Wikipedia link on the pyramid image and read the full article about the parameter data measurements regarding the monument.

But wait -- this article only gives measurements in the metric system. Ah -- yes, the Metric Measurement System -- that competing measurement system to the Imperial Measurement System that is trying to win the hearts and minds of scientist the world over since the French Revolution. We will cover this conflict situation later in this interview.

Well, we can use metric to feet calculator tools on the internet to discover that the total hight of the El Castillow monument -- including the temple building on the top layer, measures almost 100-feet. Actually, technically 98.4-feet -- but close enough to the 100-foot mark for a prehistoric monument.

Now let's move over about 500-feet west-northwest to the Ball Court at Chichen-Itza and check out the measurements at that site. Using the measuring tool again it seems that the walled sides are about 104-yards in length with the playing field width of 32-yards.

However, if a two-yard parameter zone was place around this measurement, a playing field of 100-yards by 28-yards would appear within the ball court. Interesting...

Let's check out one more nearby prehistoric monument complex site to see again if the Imperial Measurement System may have been used to build these ancient places.

Zooming up and over from Chichen-Itza 62.5 Nautical Miles to the eastern seashore of the Yucatan Peninsula -- near the town of Tulum, exist the ancient site of Tulum.

The largest monument along the seashore is the building known as El Castillo and if we measure the side parallel to the shore using the 2010 year view image, we can see the length of this temple measures about 98-feet long, just two feet short of 100-feet -- which is a very small error to consider from a high altitude aerial photo image of the site area. The Wikipedia article does not mention the seaside length of the temple building so we can't really verify the aerial photo data.

But the idea that the Imperial Measurement System was once used to build prehistoric monument sites around the globe seems likely considering the views we have collected during this Google Earth search of ancient places.

**Reporter 2:** Regarding your earlier comment about a conflict between the Metric and Imperial Measurement Systems -- what do you mean?

**Duane:** I was going to get to that -- but since you mentioned the subject again, let's talk about how the modern scientific community is seemingly trying their best to phase-out the Imperial Measurement System because it complicates the idea of a standard measurement method of calculating scientific data.

The metrification of modern science projects has had some serious problems in recent years that include costly aircraft and spacecraft accidents because metric scientist believe their measurement system is better than the Imperial Measurement System.

Without getting too technical, scientist that use the Metric System believe the advantage over the Imperial System is the ability to use the "decimal point slide concept" -- whereby the numerical value data of a measurement can be simply adjusted by sliding the decimal point along the number value and assigning a new Latin name to the new value.

The Imperial Measurement System relies on divisional and multiple values of numbers -- but also can accommodate a decimal value format like the Metric System, such as adding or subtracting zeros to numbers in order to solve numerical problems.

However, I believe the Metric Measurement System has a weakness in the "decimal point slide concept" -- because misreading the decimal point mark placement in a number value can lead to major errors in solving numerical problems.

Again -- without sounding too technical at this time to explain the strengths and weaknesses of using any number measurement counting system, we should realize that the Imperial Measurement System was instrumental in winning two World Wars -- and was also used to send humans to the moon and back safely.

So, for those persons who want to use the metric system to measure scientific data
-- that's fine, but I was raised on the Imperial Measurement System and feel comfortable with how it works. And I appreciate reading scientific data that still includes Imperial numerical values. If nothing else, using two systems to numerically measure data can be helpful in verifying the truth of the data.

**Reporter 1:** Have you ever received any positive or negative email inquires about your theories within your SPIRIT OF ATLANTIS book project over the years?

**Duane:** Early on -- over a decade ago, I had some positive inquires, but that was a long time ago. It seems that my SPIRIT OF ATLANTIS book project -- and my theories about history's greatest mystery, is lost in some backwater eddy of the vast Internet river of information flowing around us.

Apparently, nobody even has the gumption to email me and say why my theories are right or wrong. Readers of my SPIRIT OF ATLANTIS website must assume that I'm so wrong about my new timeline theory of recorded human history, they don't even try to study my other theories regarding the mystery of Atlantis.

However, I will not let my disappointment about the lack of recognition in the professional field of academic studies deter me from continuing to discovering new views about the subject of Atlantis.

It seems that every year, somebody always attempts to share their new theory about Atlantis -- and the media sometimes picks up on their story for a while, only to fade away again like so many other theories have done.

My turn in the limelight may come someday -- and hopefully last longer than just a few years. It would be nice if I'm still alive when that time comes.

**Reporter 3:** Speaking of time, do you believe it is humanly possible to see real events in the future?

**Duane:** Are you asking me that do I believe some humans have a divine ability to see real events in the future based on knowledge about past or present events? If so, no.

When a prophet attempts to interpret and predict a possible series of future events based on information from the past or present, the purpose is to inspire the public about future events that might happen -- but not necessary future events that will happen.

For example, sometimes preachers try to become prophets when they get carried away with foretelling fateful stories from past or present events in their quest to prepare followers for future events -- however, this kind of prophetic activity is limited to seeing possible future events -- not real future events. Only God almighty from eternity can see real events in the future.

The moment a person believes that another human can foretell the real future, is the moment when the foreteller can manipulate that person.

Regarding the concepts of fate and destiny -- which implies that past and future events are fixed events with no human ability to change them, there are times when one's own life seems to be part of a fixed plan or script.

As a human, knowing the future is not knowable -- however, I've always believed that every event happens for a good reason -- it's just that the reason may not be knowable in my lifetime.

END 35th INTERVIEW 3/14

Return to the Homepage site